Saturday, February 04, 2017

Adjectival, Specialty, Niche & Conceptual Tourisms

What are Adjectival Tourisms?

Adjectival Tourisms are all those forms of tourism that have an adjective in front of them. I can currently think of two broad forms of adjective tourisms. The first is niche tourism markets -- those that focus on the special interests of particular clients. This is also known as Specialty Tourism.

The second approach consists of ways that academics describing the phenomenon of tourism and broad forms of tourism, including the tourism and travel experience and tourism landscapes and economies. I refer to these as Conceptual Tourisms.

These approaches are both listed below, in separate sections, along with an Unusual Tourisms section for concepts that have been thrown out there, but have not, in my opinion, gained any use. To get more information on any of the terms in this list, you can simply search for them in your favorite search engine. 

Suggestions for additions, as well as appropriate links, are welcome in the comments section.

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Specialty Niche Tourism Markets

For many of these, the word "Travel" is interchangeable with "Tourism"
  1. - Aboriginal Tourism (also Tribal Tourism and Native American Tourism)
  2. - Active Tourism (participating in sport activities)
  3. Adventure Tourism (usually outdoors; also Extreme Adventure)
  4. - Adventurous Leisure
  5. Aerial Tourism (also Flightseeing)
  6. Agritourism (or Farm Tourism)
  7. - Alternative Tourism (involving risk)
  8. - Alternative Sport (involving risk or counter culture)
  9. Ancestral Tourism (see also Roots Tourism)
  10. - Armchair Tourism (also Vicarious Travel -- experiencing travel without traveling)
  11. Atomic Tourism (also Nuclear Tourism)
  12. - Atrocity Tourism (also War, Disaster, etc., below)
  13. - Audio Tours / Tourism
  14. Backpack Tourism (or Youth Backpack Tourism)
  15. - Battlefield Tourism
  16. - Beach Tourism (see also SSS, below)
  17. Birth Tourism
  18. - Border Tourism (or Cross-Border Tourism)
  19. Business Travel
  20. - Celebrity Tourism (including Celebrity Cruises)
  21. - Commodity Tourism (based on fishing, agriculture, etc.; includes Plantation Tourism)
  22. - Community Based Tourism (or Community Supported Tourism)
  23. Corruption Tourism
  24. Cruise Tourism
  25. Culinary Tourism
  26. - Diaspora Tourism (related to Roots Tourism)
  27. Disaster Tourism
  28. Dark Tourism
  29. - Death Tourism (Dark Tourism to sites of disaster and death)
  30. - Dental Tourism (a form of Medical Tourism)
  31. - Desert Tourism
  32. - Dive Tourism (SCUBA)
  33. - Drug Tourism (to buy legal or illegal drugs)
  34. Ecotourism (or Eco-tourism in some countries)
  35. - Educational Tourism (or Edutourism)
  36. - Emersive Tourism (educational, volunteer, adventure and working travel)
  37. Enclave Tourism
  38. Engagementcations
  39. - Equestrian Tourism
  40. - Ethnic Tourism
  41. - Event Tourism (or Special Event Tourism, including Festivals)
  42. - Extreme Tourism
  43. - Fare Travel (application of "fare trade" to travel and tourism)
  44. FIT - Fully Independent Travel (or Free and Independent Travel)
  45. - Good Tourism (also Gastronomy Tourism)
  46. - Free and Easy Travel (transportation and accommodations only package)
  47. - Gambling of Gaming Tourism
  48. - Garden Tourism
  49. Gay Tourism (also LGBT Tourism - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender)
  50. Gay Marriage Tourism
  51. - Geography Tourism (also Extreme Geography Tourism)
  52. Geoparks Tourism (geology-based parks)
  53. Geotourism (related to GeoParks, and to Sustainable Tourism)
  54. - Girlfriend Getaway (all female trip)
  55. - GIT - Group Inclusive Travel (also All Inclusive Holiday, related to Package Tour)
  56. - Golf Tourism
  57. - Green Tourism (related to Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism)
  58. - Greif Tourism (related to Thanatourism)
  59. Halal Tourism (sensitive to Islamic practices)
  60. - Health Tourism (overlapping with Wellness Tourism, Medical Tourism and New Age Tourism)
  61. Heat Tourism
  62. Heritage Tourism
  63. - Hobby Tourism
  64. Homestay Tourism (also Village Stay Tourism and Kampung Stay Tourism)
  65. - Hot-Spot Tourism (places of current conflict)
  66. - Incentive Travel (gift or award vacations for employees)
  67. - Inclusive Tourism (for disability travelers)
  68. Independent Tour Groups (aka "Donkey Friends" in China)
  69. - Island Tourism
  70. Jihad Tourism (travel to support one side in a Muslim conflict)
  71. Jobbatical (work exchange sabbatical)
  72. Honeymoon (or Second Honeymoon)
  73. Libel Tourism
  74. Literary Tourism
  75. - Local Travel (aka Proximity Tourism; related to Staycation)
  76. - Mass Tourism
  77. Maternity Tourism
  78. Medical Tourism (also Organ Tourism and Transplant Tourism)
  79. - Meditation Tourism
  80. MICE - Meetings, Incentive Travel, Conventions and Exhibitions
  81. - Mountain Tourism
  82. - Nautical Tourism
  83. New Age Tourism
  84. - Nightlife Tourism (also Entertainment Tourism)
  85. Package Tourism (related to GIT)
  86. - Perpetual Tourism ("travel as a way of life")
  87. - Photography (or Photo) Tourism
  88. - Plantation Tourism (Agritourism to tropical plantations)
  89. Poverty Tourism (or Poorism)
  90. - Pro-Poor Tourism
  91. Proximity Tourism (aka Local Travel; related to Staycation)
  92. Reality Tourism (real world experiences; often related to Responsible Tourism and Poverty Tourism)
  93. - Relationship Tourism (experimenting with brief, non-committal relationships, such as this)
  94. Religious Tourism (or Faith Tourism; includes Pilgrimage)
  95. - Residential Tourism (retirement in another country)
  96. - Respite Tourism (for care givers)
  97. - Responsible Tourism (or Purposeful Tourism)
  98. Reunion Tourism
  99. - River Cruise Tourism
  100. - Romance Tourism (or Female Sex Tourism, as opposed to Male Sex Tourism)
  101. - Roots Tourism (or Genealogy tourism; related to Diaspora Tourism)
  102. - Ruin Porn (related to: #urbexhidden cityabandoned america)
  103. Rural Tourism
  104. - Second Home Tourism (also Vacation Home)
  105. - Senior Tourism
  106. Sex Tourism (also Child Sex Tourism)
  107. - Shopping Tourism
  108. - Social Tourism (meaning social welfare, associated with European communist policies)
  109. Space Tourism
  110. - Sports Tourism
  111. - SSS - Sun, Sand and Surf (also Sand, Surf and Sex)
  112. Staycation (became widely used in Summer 2008; a form of Local Travel and Proximity Tourism)
  113. Thanatourism (meaning 'death' related tourism)
  114. - Urban Tourism
  115. - Vacation Rental Travel
  116. - VFR - Visiting Friends and Relatives
  117. - Virtual Tourism (a modern form of Armchair Tourism)
  118. Volunteer Tourism (also Voluntourism)
  119. War Tourism
  120. - Wine Tourism (a form of Culinary Tourism)
  121. - Winter (Sports) Tourism
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New and Unusual Tourisms

These are terms that I have come across, but I consider them concepts that are not yet used in any regular way -- at least not be most people and academics. ...Or perhaps I just feel uncomfortable putting them in either of the lists above.
  1. Babymoon (a pre-birth honeymoon)
  2. Biotourism (travel to biological sites and sights)
  3. Black-Hole Tourism/Resorts (disconnecting from technology)
  4. Book Town tourism
  5. Celebration Vacations
  6. Community Assistance Tourism
  7. Creative Tourism (tourist participation indestination arts)
  8. Danger Tourism
  9. Deep Tourism (as opposed to shallow or supericial tourism, like "deep ecology")
  10. Emo Tourism
  11. Fire Tourism
  12. Forever Tourism (a trip from which one never returns)
  13. Genetourism (from the Greek, genesis = birth; tourism to birth places of famous people)
  14. Graffiti Tourism (travel to commit graffiti)
  15. Infadelity Tourism
  16. Intrabound Tourism (intra-regional? - appears on several websites, including Wikipedia, but is never defined)
  17. Killing-Fields Tourism (a form of Thanatourism)
  18. Lest We Forget Tourism (or Never-Again Tourism, meaning in rememberance of events that we should not forget)
  19. Libel Tourism (I am not sure this is really tourism)
  20. Libertine Tourism (aka 'Naughty Travel' - for swingers)
  21. Mea culpa Tourism (or perhaps Guilt Tourism; related to Lest We Forget Tourism)
  22. Mancation (an all male trip)
  23. Momcation (for mothers)
  24. Pornographic Tourism
  25. Purposeful Tourism (also Meaningful Tourism, related to Volunteer Tourism)
  26. Resolution Tourism (as in New Years resolutions)
  27. Riot Tourism
  28. Sado-masochistic Tourism
  29. Summer Communes
  30. Tummy Tuck Travel (medical tourism for plastic surgery)
  31. Ultra Budget Travel
  32. Unguided Travel (random explorations of place)
Related to this list is an article on The Worst Travel Trends.

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Conceptual Tourisms - for Academic Research
These are more on the theoretical and academic concepts of tourism experiences and landscapes.
  1. - Active / Passive Tourism
  2. - Authentic Tourism (or Tourism and Authenticity)
  3. - Behavioral Tourism (studying tourist behavior and decision making)
  4. - Clustered Tourism (or Destination Tourism) / Dispersed Tourism (or Touring Tourism)
  5. - Critical Tourism (or Critical Tourism Studies)
  6. - Deep Play (or Deep and Dangerous Play; involving risk)
  7. - Existential (Authenticity) Tourism
  8. - Experimental / Participatory Tourism
  9. - Experiential Tourism
  10. - Globalization / Localization / Hybrid Tourism
  11. - Inbound/ Outbound Tourism
  12. - Inauthentic / Placeless / Staged Tourism
  13. - Modern / Postmodern Tourism (or Pomo Tourism and Post-Tourists)
  14. - Pro-Poor / Responsible Tourism
  15. - Recreational Tourism
  16. - Serious Leisure (the opposite of Recreational Tourism)
  17. Sustainable Tourism
  18. - Tourism 2.0, Travel 2.0, Tourism 3.0 and Travel 3.0
  19. Tourism Incognita (the unexpected and unknown in travel)
  20. Tourism Resilience
  21. - Structured Tourism